Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Featured Manuscript: Libro de las Ordenanzas de la Cofradía de Santa Anna

Modern Mexico differs vastly from the Aztec territory contacted by Hernan Cortez’s company on April 22, 1519. Motecuhzoma II, ruler of Tenochtitlan, allowed the Spaniards entrance to the capital on November 9, 1519. The Spanish thirst for riches was not well concealed and on May 21, 1520 they massacred many Aztecs during a religious celebration. Although the Aztecs resisted and tried to expel the invaders from the city, epidemics had already begun to kill thousands of indigenous peoples, which allowed the Spanish to quickly establish themselves as the new power.


During the 1520s, the Spaniards continued to strengthen their control by the inhumane treatment of natives. The arrival of Fray Juan de Zumarraga (soon known as Protector of Indians) ushered in a period of more tempered treatment of the native peoples.  With the discovery of silver mines near Mexico City, the Spanish population increased dramatically. This enabled friars to create schools for both the Spanish and native residents. The Spanish continued to develop a government which recognized natives as part of their new colony. Christianity flourished, mass baptisms of natives peoples became commonplace, and Mexico City became a heavily populated area for Spanish settlers. This allowed for the creation of the cofradía of Santa Anna in Mexico City on April 27, 1557. The Book of Orders on display contains the original articles of the constitution of this cofradía. 

Paper & Printing:

As a result of Muslim occupation in modern day Spain, some of the first paper mills were in production as early as the 12th century in both northern Christian and southern Moorish regions. It is probable that this document was printed on paper imported from Spain and hand written although a printing press existed in Mexico City by 1540. The introduction of the movable type printing press into the Americas has been attributed to the first Archbishop of Mexico City, Juan Zumarraga, in 1539. The publishing house created and operated by Juan Cromberger and Juan Pablos printed religious and government documents. The Book of Orders is bound most likely in vellum (calf hide), another craft that had been practiced by the medieval Spanish Arabs.  


This Book of Orders was acquired by collector Lloyd W. Smith in the 1920s. Most likely fascinated by its connection to the early European settlement of the Americas, Smith held this, and other early examples of Spanish and European “New World” exploration in his collection of nearly 400,000 manuscripts. In 1955, he bequeathed the collection to the Morristown National Historical Park where it is part of the Special Collections library today.

Cofradía of Santa Anna:

Cofradías were organized groups that functioned through churches. The members were lay men who sought social and economic protection while aiming to become active members of their communities through service to the church that sponsored them. Members were required to plan events like the procession of the Virgin of Santa Anna. Restrictions on membership were based on race and profession. The cofradía of Santa Anna was made up of tundidores, fabric refinement specialists, aiming to recreate the lifestyles they had maintained in Spain. The two main parts of the Book of Orders describe the formation of the cofradía and distribution of tasks among members. 


Dr. Jude Pfister, Chief of Cultural Resources at the Morristown National Historical Park 
Dr. Luz Huertas, professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University - Florham Campus.


Basbanes, Nicholas A. On paper: the everything of its two-thousand-year history. New York: Vintage Books, 2014.

Brundage, Burr Cartwright. A rain of darts: the Mexica Aztecs. Austin, Tex.: Univ. Pr., 1972.

Caistor, Nick. Mexico City: a cultural and literary companion. Oxford: Signal, 2000.

Cohen, Sara E. "How the Aztecs Appraised Montezuma." The History Teacher 5, no. 3 (1972): 21-30.

León-Portilla, Miguel. The broken spears: the Aztec account of the conquest of Mexico. Boston: Beacon, 1962.

Szirmai, J. A. Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding. S.l.: Routledge, 2017.

The Americas, Vol. 5, No. 3, Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga, First Bishop and Archbishop of Mexico (Jan., 1949), pp. 264-274. Cambridge University Press. 

This blog post by Pamela Russo, Adiana Perez, and Katherine Kurylko Fairleigh Dickinson University.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Park Library & Archives Receives Innovative Archives Award

The New Jersey Caucus of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference (MARAC) is pleased to announce the recipient of the 2017 Innovative Archives Award is the Morristown National Historical Park, Library and Archives located in Morristown, New Jersey.

MARAC is the regional professional society for archivists and special collections professionals.  It spans from New York to Virginia and includes Pennsylvania and West Virginia.  The New Jersey Caucus comprises those members of MARAC living or working in the state of New Jersey.

Dr. Sarah Minegar and Dr. Jude Pfister  accepted the award at 
the October 14th Monmouth County Library Archives Day

The Morristown National Historical Park, Library and Archives, with a staff of three, has made great strides in promoting the history of the site that George Washington chose as his winter encampment for two winters during the Revolutionary War, and making the Library’s collections an active site for research and discovery. In addition to  offering a series of lectures, partnerships, and online articles, the curatorial staff collaborates with universities and secondary schools to make historical manuscripts accessible and relevant to young learners. 

The Library and Archives has pioneered several programs to reach out to secondary schools in the region and engage those students and teachers in the complex concepts of historic documentation and research that are involved in writing our nation’s history.  Having designed programs which include example lesson plans to help schools to integrate the resources of the Library and Archives into their curriculum needs, they also offer on-site programs to further engage the young students in the joy of historical discovery.

Their partnership with local schools and universities have had a very high impact; most recently displaying information related to the Shakespeare Folio that visited Drew University in the Fall of 2016.   One popular topic was the art of transcription using their own records to discuss and demonstrate the challenges of reading cursive writing.

The staff have developed, with the help of high school and college-age interns, a variety of ways to engage young adults in the  research process. This creative thinking along with the shear excitement communicated by the staff for their topics is felt by those who participate in these projects. 

 For these reasons, MARAC- NJ Caucus is pleased to recognize the Library and Archives of the Morristown National Park as this year’s recipient of the 2017 Innovative Archives Award.

MARAC - New Jersey Caucus Innovative Archives Award Committee

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Celebrate National Hispanic Heritage Month

Fairleigh Dickinson University (Madison campus), and the Morristown National Historical Park, are pleased to announce a special event for National Hispanic Heritage Month. On October 19, 2017, join FDU History Professor Dr. Luz Huertas and Morristown NHP chief of cultural resources Dr. Jude Pfister, as they present a program on a unique facet of colonial Latin American history in celebration of National Hispanic Heritage Month.

In 1557, thirty-seven years after the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Archbishop of Mexico, Alonzo de Montufar, signed a Libro de las Ordenanza (book of orders) for the church of Santa Anna. The church was nestled in a small village on the outskirts of Mexico City and residents of this village came together to form a cofradia, or brotherhood, creating a society centered on a religious purpose; which, in 16th century Mexico, meant the Catholic Church. 

The manuscript creating this particular cofradia by Bishop de Montufar in 1557 is today part of the archival collection at the Morristown National Historical Park. Drs. Huertas and Pfister will present a special talk on Thursday, October 19, 2017, at 6:30 pm, in Lenfell Hall (the mansion) on the campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University to discuss this special document.

In addition to the talk, the actual manuscript will be on display, 460 years after it was created. Don’t miss this once in a half-millennium opportunity to see this one of a kind manuscript and hear the story it has to tell. 

For more information, please call 973-539-2016 x 204.

For parking information, see the map at or